It’s cold up here in Northern England, and while it is beautiful to behold in the winter, you don’t want to venture out more than you have to, even to go to the gym. I know how it is. I have committed myself to working out on a regular basis to get fit, but I’m not much for fighting the elements that Mother Nature bestows on this region. I think after getting home from work and settling in, I would like to stay there for the evening. Thus, if I had to answer the question of public or home gym, I would go for the latter.
We all don’t have space, of course. I am very mindful of that fact, but sometimes you can cram a lot of equipment in a corner. If you have a spare room and infrequent guest, why not there? Also, there is usually a couple of meters of space at the top of a staircase or in an attic high enough to accommodate an adult at full measure. Basements, if not too damp work well, but frankly they need to be weatherproofed and heated to be viable candidates for your private workout space.
Let’s say you have found the ideal spot and it is a guest area on the first floor. It is small but has a ceiling light and a plug for a TV. So far so good. It also has a wood floor which is ideal for stabilizing equipment. By equipment I have in mind either a treadmill or a good quality elliptical machine. You will not likely have room for both. You need a rack with a few weights pairs, a yoga mat (rolled up), and a set of good resistance bands. This can be fairly compact and you might even use the hallway for some of your exercises. It’s not luxury or anything close to a spa, but it will work.
I am just trying to keep you out of the cold, not pamper you. Many will want more devices than I have listed. They will want large rubber balls, a massage table, maybe assorted straps, and the like. If you do circuit training, you will know what I mean. A few items might not suffice. When in the sporting goods store, take stock of sizes and necessities before equipment your home mini-gym.
There is a camaraderie at a public gym that is hard to beat and if you crave in person socializing, you will make the effort to get there. You might avail yourself of a trainer, someone to egg you on to bigger and harder things. I know I always go that extra sit up for someone else out of pure shame. I will last longer in plank position if someone is counting. The other blokes in the gym all have their tips and tricks to offer and it makes for a good time.
Thus, in weighting the odds, take all aspects into consideration: home or public gym? That is the question.
To a certain degree, slugs and snails are harmless in the garden. But they can be bothersome pests indeed. Here in northern England we have plenty of them. As we take pride in our gardens, we have to know how to get rid of them before they wreak certain havoc.
Bah humbug you say. Why mess with nature’s creatures. They are placed on this earth for a purpose. Yes they are. They all are. But when they get plentiful, you have to control the population, to put it scientifically. Or you can just tell your gardener and wonder why he didn’t notice they were on the rise in sudden numbers.
The critters come from the mollusk family and every region has a different species. Some are particularly dreadful, and not just in appearance. They glide on a muscular “foot.” Mine have been gliding lately like professional figure skaters that leave a slimy trail. What’s more, they lay dozens of eggs so their offspring will be plentiful. They feed on my garden like it was a veritable feast. You have no doubt seen those irregular holes that attest to a lot of munching going on in secret.
I hear that they work their tricks at night and love foggy and cloudy weather. They have come to the right place in England for sure. They want to avoid the bright light and the sun. That would be a great method of pest control if we had more of it! It would be natural and please the eco-minded people around here. No one likes chemicals, so if you start with weeding and getting rid of debris around the yard, it is the best start of a management program. This will take away their hiding places. Drip irrigation helps as well since too much moisture is created by irrigation, and do they ever love that humidity. You can actually buy snail-proof plants, but after the fact, your tactics will have to vary. Shelter, food, and moisture are their idea of heaven so take them away. It is called “habitat modification.” Again, very scientific.
Slugs and snails, however, can be a battle that takes great effort to win. It is all about repelling them. After a round of handpicking, if you can fathom it, you can place barriers around their favourite plants and set traps and baits. This is the most effective way to get rid of slugs and snails. The latter contain toxic chemicals anathema to our enemies, but it isn’t the most effective approach since it is dangerous to domestic pets like cats and dogs. They are also not great for the plants themselves. Then there is a beer (or sugar water) type of pest control that lures and traps them before a final drowning. How pleasant. Ugh.
These traps must be deep enough to prevent the buggers from climbing out in a frenzy of panic. They can be found at any garden supply store. They will also stock copper foil barriers whose surface reacts with snail slime causing a chemical reaction and a kind of ersatz electric shock. What a way to go!
Yes, the English do love their tea and they have quite good types from Earl Grey and English Breakfast to Jasmine and Darjeeling. There is nothing like a brisk cup made with filtered water. Yes, you heard right. This is an important daily ritual, and you want it to taste great. Natural water can have a chlorine taste in the north of England where I reside in Sunderland. Who knows what other chemicals lurk in our liquid.
The art of tea is well known abroad and we English are proud of it. It is a tradition that we welcome people to emulate. You can enjoy a spot of tea in the afternoon with a scone and some clotted Devonshire cream. Jam adds pizzazz while honey is the sizzle. Using a beautiful tea set makes it a lovely pastime as well especially if you have guests. A tea cozy will keep it piping hot in case you are a bit late coming to consumption. Some like them floral, some like them plaid. It is not an intense decision, but fun nonetheless.
You can make your tea with a kettle such as an electric stainless. They come cordless which is a nice feature. I love the glass versions where you can see the water boil before your very eyes. You say that you don’t need to filter the water if it is whirling about bubbling in profusion. I say why not. I still believe that both coffee and tea require filtered water to maximise the taste and flavour of your favourite beverage. Even an inexpensive faucet water filter will improve the taste of your tea or coffee. Make it a practice and find out for yourself.
Taking tea is so relaxing. You foreigners should try it on a regular basis. You will enjoy shopping not only for new teas, but fine sweets and jams as well. You can buy all the best English brands on line these days and they will be at your door in no time flat. Loose tea is for connoisseurs, but bag it if you must rather than pass up on the pleasure altogether. The preparation is important and part of the process, so don’t cut corners. Do it right for best results.
Think of the aromas: black current, spice, herbal, vanilla….it is just heavenly. It is a perfume-like essence that permeates your oral cavity and warms the nose. When it is in fine bone china, it is completely delicious, literally and figuratively. If you are in a tearoom in town, you can drink along with your fellow travelers and enjoy homemade sweets or savories as you prefer. Come four o’clock, your mouth starts watering and your brain sends messages to your feet to get moving.
Do you like tiny sandwiches, shortbread, and cookies? Teatime allows you to indulge. This has been an English tradition since the 17th century and still holds sway in the late afternoon. You need a bit of etiquette in terms of holding the cup properly—gracefully to avoid spills. Then sip and never slurp. Once you get your filtered water, you are ready for a wonderful, age-old experience.
There is no place like Sunderland in the world: we have everything. Some things come in smaller packages, but it is all here. In addition to the butcher, baker, and candlestick maker, we have the best carwash around. In fact, it may be the best in the entire UK region. I kid you not. Come and see for yourself.
If you want a clean car, you know where to go in these parts. The car practically drives itself, it is so excited at the prospect of a good wash. It knows it will get tender loving care and its coat of colors will shine and gleam. I partake of the professional services every two weeks. It is part of my regular routine, even if the car is not showing any ill effects from the weather as yet. If we get a real downpour, and they come often certain times of the year, I go a bit more.
What do I find? It is a simple structure on the front street in town next to the gas station and a mini mart. I get nothing but hand labor—no automatic machines that can’t distinguish between a jalopy and a Rolls Royce that whip those stiff strips of fabric with too much abandon. It isn’t getting Pressure Cleaned like the cars that go through the auto wash. Instead, I get soft wiping cloths and not just air spray that leaves telltale signs and spots. I get the chamois treatment and special wheel rim cleansing. The windows and windshield are pristine and divine. Nothing is too fast or impetuous, except maybe the power washer, which has its role—just the right amount of spray and it’s done, especially on the fancy metal wheels.
The family owners of the carwash takes great pride in this special enterprise. It has been handed down for at least two or three generations by now. Locals have come to know each personally and every employee attendant on duty. You can also get a hand wax for a little more if you have the time. It takes an hour since they do it perfectly, rubbing away dull areas of faded paint with expert hands. If there were prizes for best the carwash in England, this one would win every time.
The world is so fully automated and it’s for good reason most of the time. I suppose it’s faster and we are all busy as bees. But we still get manicures and massages by hand, and we don’t want them too quick or superficial. Same with the family car. It wants its due after roaring about the countryside day after day, dodging vans and motorcycles, keeping everyone safe and secure. You want to reward that good behavior lest it rebel one day when you are lost on a quiet lane late at night and you forgot your mobile phone. This local carwash, very special indeed, is so great that I wish I could take the family dog along. He would love the pressure washer in particular. It would be a nice, vigorous rubdown.
There is a country house at the end of a meandering lane in Northern England—just a stone’s throw from a village. It is a white brick cottage with a green front door and a chimney atop a slate roof. This is not an estate in a parkland setting mind you. It is an everyday abode, a humble residence, and no more. The homes in the area are quite old and basic in design and construction. They are charming, inviting, and quaint.
A small pathway dotted with flowers leads to the entrance. In season, the color is glorious. Otherwise the greenery sets off the place nicely. A large tree—an Appleton Thorn Oak—graces the right side in front of a picture window. It almost obscures it and helps to block excess light. No doubt it blocks excess heat although locally this is not a warm climate, even in summer. Inside the polished wood floors are covered sporadically with area carpets and simple wood furniture. Nothing could be cozier or more suitable for the environment. I call it home.
While weather is pleasant from May to September, and central air conditioning is certainly not required, the air can get stuffy and heavy. In this area, you can open the windows while you are at home, but you would want to deter robbers and keep them closed otherwise.
I am somewhat describing a typical home to make the point that a ceiling or floor fan is not an unheard of purchase in my region. You can even get some decent ones online these days; they even do ceiling fan reviews to help you find the best one. The reason is that a local purveyor of hardware and appliances had a great two for one sale recently and guess what? I bought two. I had to share. One ceiling with blades and one portable desk model. This was a deal too good to pass up even if it will be of greater use next year. It was like getting a fan for free!
The back room of the house overlooking the small, tidy garden is the perfect setting for the ceiling device. I got wood blades to match the floor and a subtle glass fixture—kind of old fashioned, but not too much. It’s perfect. These fans come with remotes so installation is a breeze—just like their output. In my small office with only one window, where the air is dense, I placed the smaller one. It has the typical grille and whirling blades that produce just the desired flow with a change of setting. This was the “free” unit and it was a blessing on a recent dry day. I find that I work better when a bit on the chilly side. My brain keeps ideas coming when it is not falling asleep on the job.
It just goes to show you how simple everyday appliances can change your life and routine habits. I am not sure why they had a glut of fans at the store, warranting the fire sale, but who cares! I am the happy recipient of a small, but welcome, opportunity to save money and stay cool.
There is more than enough attention given to weight these days. There are miracle pills, potions for overnight cures and even special scales designed for weight loss. England is no exception. We don’t produce the shockwaves that Americans do with rising obesity statistics, but we can lose a stone or two. Diabetes is not limited to the US and it is, indeed, rampant in the western world. With an aging population approaching retirement, perhaps now is the time to get a new digital bathroom scale.
The scale is a symbol of sorts. It implies balance and order. On the other hand, it often denotes ill health, gluttony, and self-indulgence. Philosophy aside, it is wise to take stock now and then, and learn the facts. You may be gaining weight without realizing it and jeopardizing your longevity and so weight management is an important thing to focus on for your overall height.
On the brighter side, a local shop was having a sale on bathroom scales and I was quite interested in a purchase. Mine had seen better days. Oh, it still works, but it is archaic in form and function. I went to price the high tech models and was impressed with all they can do. They not only give you the figures, record the info in your smart phone or laptop (by wireless Wi-Fi), give your BMI, and signal alarms when you go over an amount you have set as your goal, but they do it digitally and with precision.
This, I decided, was for me. In spite of the discount, I was surprised at the cost not having bought one in a decade (or maybe I have a hand-me-down). No matter. This was going to be a fundamental part of a new programme of health and well-being. I was heavy (pun intended) into dieting and getting fit. I planned on exercising, if only walking, a few times a week, and watching the calories. Counting them would be tedious, but my smart phone does it for me. Great app!
The store was open late for the sale, so I sauntered over after dinner one evening and made the rounds of the wares. The sizes for a typical bathroom scale were fairly similar as I did not need a stand-up doctor’s office model. Just the usual floor device with a nice big LED display. The idea of keeping a log was appealing as it practically does it for you. It was like a flat funky computer lying there on the tile waiting for instructions.
I was surprised at how many people turned out to buy scales. I guess they have changed enough in the last few years to warrant an outlay of cash. We are all feeling the pressure of the media and the explosion of concern about added poundage. We are even told to watch the weight of our pets! So, I am on my way to a svelte new persona with the guidance of a digital marvel that will keep me on track….I hope. Of course, what I eat will be the real deciding factor about the quality of my future life and how the world will view my appearance.
|Sunderland offers numerous places and activities that are sure to make for a perfect date. Whether you are a fan of the old school dinner dates, or into something a bit more unorthodox, such as rock-climbing, Sunderland is sure to hold the perfect destination!
Frankie & Benny’s
If you are going for a classic restaurant date, try checking out Frankie & Benny’s: New York Italian Restaurant and Bar. Breakfast items include things such as hash browns, pancakes, omelets, and of course, bacon. Moving on to lunch, you can find Philly cheeseburgers, crispy coated chicken strips, meatballs Italiano, and BLT wraps on the menu. Dinner options include things like calamari, Cajun chicken bake, carbonara, various burgers and sandwiches, pizzas, salads, and steaks. And to top it all off, we have the desert menu. This features various waffle deserts, chocolate brownie fudge cake, toffee pudding, apple pie, sundaes, and cheesecakes.
For a more formal date, The Royalty Theatre is an ideal location. The Royalty Theatre is one of the only establishments in the city of Sunderland that provides on-stage dramatic plays. The theatre hosts various plays all throughout the year. The establishment is also home to some social activities as well. On Saturdays, Royalty Theatre offers something called Quiz Nights. Members and nonmembers alike are welcomed to join in on the puzzles, quizzes, and pictures.
For something more adventurous, check out Karting North East. As the name implies, Karting North East is a massive go-kart track. There are two adult tracks. The first is 850 meters, and the second is 1200 meters. Both tracks feature various twists and turns, and last for approximately 30 minutes. Karting North East also features other attractions as well. Amongst these is a 4×4 off road driving course. For 30 minutes to an hour, you can drive an ex-army Landrover off track into a course that has numerous turns, steep inclines, and water pits. If you are looking for something a bit more ‘hands on’ they also offer paintball and archery/tomahawk throwing. The paint ball arena is built into the side of a hill, and is constructed in a way where the general public can look down and watch your game. It is built as a War World II battle scenario, which features gun positions, sandbag trenches, and machine gun nests. You are given approximately two hours of game play. And last, but not least, we come to the archery and tomahawk department. You can do just one, or both of the activities. If neither of you have experience, don’t worry, the course comes with an instructor to guide you.
Want to try something new together? The Sunderland Climbing Centre is just the place to go. There are outdoor climbing courses available during the summer. However, there are indoor courses offered year round. If you or your paramour have no experience, they offer an introductory course. After completing basic training and going through the safety requirements and information, you are free to climb unsupervised for as long as you would like.
These are only but a few examples of what date destinations Sunderland has to offer. Whatever you and your date’s interests may be, Sunderland is guaranteed to have the perfect destination for you.
|Do you want to try something different for your child’s birthday party this year? If so, you’re in luck. Sunderland is home to numerous kid-friendly venues that are guaranteed to make any child’s party a fun one. These facilities also hold a bit of fun for adults as well!
The Sunderland Climbing Centre
The Sunderland Climbing Centre is an indoor establishment with bouldering, climbing walls. The Centre features a massive, angled bouldering wall, a dedicated child climbing zone, and a roped climbing area with a unique rock buttress. Don’t have any prior experience in rock climbing? Not a problem! The Centre has professional instructors that are more than happy to assist you.
The Centre has available a children’s party package. This package caters to groups of 6 to 24 kids that are over the age of 5. The instructors will aid children who need assistance in climbing, and the group at large will be given instructions on safety. They will ensure that the children will not only have fun, but stay safe while doing so! There is also a party room that can be reserved for eating cake and opening presents.
The Centre is not only for children. They have plenty of courses that are perfectly suited for young adults and adults as well! The children aren’t the only ones who should have fun- join in on a climb for yourself!
Quasar Laser Quest Sunderland
Quasar Laser Quest Sunderland is an indoor laser quest game. Each player is strapped into futuristic body packs and gets his or her own laser. Each game takes place in a 6000 square foot arena! The ‘battle zone’ features raised ramp sections, music, concealing fog, and space-like lighting. The game works by shooting your laser at the opposing team. Every time you manage to hit your target, you will earn 20 points. Be careful though; if you get zapped you’ll be the one losing 20 points!
Quasar Laser Quest offers a birthday adventure package for birthdays. This package includes: two games of laser quest, unlimited orange and blackcurrant squash, choice of a Burger King kid’s meal, and Laser Quest party bags filled with party favors for each guest. They also offer an exclusive adventure package. With the exclusive package, the arena is filled by only you and your party guests- no one else allowed! This package is ideal for larger groups. Laser quest makes for a fun party for all ages.
Karting North East
Karting North East is a rather large, outdoor establishment. They are one of UK’s largest karting experiences. They offer karting, tomahawk throwing, paintball, 4×4, buggies, and archery. Karting North East currently has 5 party packages available. The first package available is the Karting package for children 8 to 12. This package allows children in this age group to use the junior track for an allotted time. Next is the karting package for children 12 to 16. This package is like the first, but the track is much larger. Third, is the paintball package for children 12 and up. The paintball arena is a realistic replica of a WWII scenario. The arena is built in way where spectators can actually watch you play from above! The party package includes 2 hours of gameplay as well as team coded color wear, various amounts of paintballs, face masks, and top notch Tippman guns. Tomahawk throwing and archery make up the fourth package. This package is for children over the age of 12, and it gives you and your guests exclusive use of the firing range. Professional instructors are there to assist or teach children, as well as give safety instructions. Lastly, we have the off road 4×4 package. This includes ex-army Landrovers (equipped with seatbelts). The course includes sharp angles, steep inclines, large rocks, and water.
|Whether you are a tourist, or even a local resident of Sunderland, it may interest you to know that Sunderland has a number of different facilities that are dedicated to teaching the public about Sunderland’s amazing heritage.
St. Peters Church
A Northumbrian nobleman named Benedict Biscop created this beautiful establishment in the seventh century. It is one of the first churches in England to be solely built from stone. The church displays original stained glass that was crafted in the seventh century by a European craftsman, making St. Peters the owners of the largest stained glass collectors in Europe. Inside, you will find beautifully crafted arch ways and perfectly sculpted stone columns. St. Peters is also home to Bede’s Bakehouse, who’s menu includes: salads, paninis, filled jacket potatoes, soups, fish, fruit salad, sandwiches, pudding, teas, coffee, and cake.
Hylton Castle was built by Sir William Hylton just before 1400. The castle was built with the intent of showing the Hylton family’s wealth. The remaining part of the castle still standing is the gatehouse tower. The gatehouse tower was a rectangular structure with four stories, and it is where the Hylton family resided. The exterior of the west side of the castle held four square turrets with projecting octagonal crowns. The east side exterior proudly showed the stars and stripes shield of the Washington family. While only the gatehouse has survived, Hylton Castle is available for tourists.
The Watch House Museum
The Rocker Watch House created in 1906 and served as headquarters of the Rocker Volunteer Life Brigade. It was built with a lookout point so that the Brigade members could keep watch over the harbor, beaches, and piers north of the river. The watch house contains large amounts of information and artifacts from the Brigade’s 130 year history. The Brigade opens the Watch House as a Museum every Sunday afternoon as well as Bank Holiday Mondays, and entrance is free.
The Watch House displays memorabilia from ships that came to grief around the coast and harbor. You can also see numerous photos, various model boats, and information on the rescues. A plaque commemorating the sinking of the City of Benares in which nine children died is also on display. There are also younger children activities as well, which include: coloring books, Morse code, drawing paper, and educational DVDS. Drinks are available for sale, as well as biscuits, crisps, and sweets. Mementos such as pennates, hats, lapel pins, and car stickers are also available.
Bowes Railway is the only operational preserved standard gauge rope-hauled railway in the world. It was 15 miles by the time it was completed in 1855. The railway hauled over 1 million tons of coal per year. Currently, the railway is open to the public. The entire railway, including the buildings, rolling stocks, and machinery is now considered and ancient monument. It is run by the Bowes Railway Company, Ltd, and is a registered charity.
These are just a few of the old museums and monuments Sunderland has to offer. Sunderland holds many places of interests, and is more than happy to share its heritage with you!
Everyone wishes to have a nice and well-furnished home. There is nothing odd about that. We all strive towards having a lovely decorated home. Some love the idea of a big terrace with flowers and decorations. Others enjoy beautiful bathrooms or kitchens. We are all different with different ideas and demands.
Sunderland in northern England is well known for its style and class when it comes to housing. If walking through the town, you will notice lovely gardens and houses to match, but what is even more important are the people who populate this lovely town and their amazing taste in decor.
When thinking about renovating your bathroom it is essential to make a plan before renovating. If you do not have a plan and just go through with it, it could cost you more money at the end. You might change your mind regarding the wall colour or something else, and then you will have to do it all over again and eventually lose money. That is why it is always good to have a plan.
Of course, we all renovate our home to improve it and to give the house more value. For example, if you decide to sell your house, you will have to make some adjustments. Perhaps renovate your bathroom, kitchen or anything else that needs taking care of.
Nowadays, bathrooms have become one of the most important rooms in the house. Everyone wishes to own a lovely and functional bathroom. Modern bathrooms in present time have all sorts of technological details, like towel heaters and other little details which make the bathroom so desirable and modern. Younger people are usually more lenient towards this kind of equipment. Another thing that can improve your bathroom is a great modern shower head. Before the renovation, it would be a good idea to read shower head reviews on a site like www.agreatshower.com in order to find the best shower head. Some people will love the idea of a shower with steam and the other will enjoy some other different shower head characteristics.
Before you renovate your bathroom and give it a whole new look, you should do your homework first. The Internet can be a great source of information and ideas. So why not spend some time browsing through some web pages and reading a few reviews concerning shower heads, but not just that. You can find all sorts of information online. You can browse through some photographs and find the perfect color for your bathroom and a perfect tile sample. The choice is endless. You need some free time to explore all the possibilities and some good will. All those reviews will help you to determine the best possible solution to your quest.
If you still lack ideas, you can consult a friend or a family member. Maybe you are not a creative person, but do not despair, every problem has a solution. As mentioned above, everything you need you can find online. The sky is the limit.
In the Beginning
The first inhabitants in Sunderland’s area are thought to be Stone Age hunters and gatherers. While in the final stage during the Stone Age, Hastings Hill (on the western outskirts of Sunderland) was a large center of activity. It is believed to be a place of ritual significance and burial. It is thought that the Brigantes occupied the surrounding lands of River Wear during pre- and post- Roman era. There are recorded settlements at the Wear’s mouth dated to be around 674; this is at the same time Benedict Biscop was given land by the king of Northumbria. This land was founded as Wearmouth-Jarrow (now known as St. Peter’s) monastery. This area was then called Monkwearmouth. The community was overtaken in 686 by Coelfrid. Wearmouth-Jarrow was then known to be a major learning and knowledge cetre.
Vikings raided the coast line in the late 8th century. The monastery had been abandoned by the middle of the 9th century. In 930, Athelstan of England granted lands south to the river to the Bishop of Durham. The lands were then known as Bishopwearmouth. In 1100, Bishopwearmouth parish was home to a fishing village known as ‘Soender-land’ (later known as ‘Sunderland’). Hugh Pudsey and the Bishop of Durham granted a charter for the settlement of Soender-land in 1179
By the late 16th century, Sunderland was creating and trading salt, as well as trading quality coal by port.
Sunderland in the 17th, 18th, and 19th Centuries
In 1642, King Charles I gave the deeds to Newcastle concerning the East of England coal trade. This created conflict for Sunderland, as it had begun to develop as a coal-trading town. It shaped resentment towards the monarchy and Newcastle. In 1644 a Scottish army sided with the king’s enemies and stationed themselves at Sunderland. Fighting occurred between the monarchy’s troops and the troops dedicated to Newcastle’s Marquess who waged war against them. The encounter of the most significance occurred in the areas of Boldon and Offerton. The River Tyne was blockaded, damaging the Newcastle coal trade. This caused Sunderland’s Coal trade to prosper. Due to the hardship of trying to traverse the Wear’s shallow waters, the coal was transferred into large boats and taken downstream to the awaiting colliers.
In 1719 the three settlements Bishopwearmouth, Monkwearmouth, and Sunderland began to combine. The settlement was flourishing due to the success of shipbuilding along the banks of the river, salt panning, and the port of Sunderland. Sunderland became known as ‘Sunderland-near-the-sea’.
The cholera epidemic began in 1831, and once called, the church councilmen were unable to handle the situation. Sunderland was the first town in Britain to be struck with cholera. Sunderland was quarantined. The port was blockaded soon after. However, this did not stop the spreading of cholera, as it spread to Gateshead. It then proceeded to spread rapidly across the entire country. After the church councilmen’s lack of governance during the cholera epidemic, the townsmen demanded an organized government. Thusly so, in 1835, the Borough of Sunderland was created.
From the 20th Century to Now
In 1939 during World War II, Sunderland fell prey to the German Luftwaffe. This took the lives of approximately 267 people. It caused severe damage and destroyed countless homes. Sunderland began developing more housing after the war. By 1967 the town’s boundaries expanded when Castletown, Herrington, Ryhope, Silksworth, and South Hylton were absorbed into Sunderland. In 1992, Sunderland finally gained city status.
Today, Sunderland is a thriving city in North East England- rich with heritage and culture.